PROPOSED Changes to API RP 14C. Recommended Practice for Analysis,. Design, Installation, and Testing of. Safety Systems for Offshore. Production. API RP 14C CHECKLIST WELLHEADS AND FLOW LINES Wellheads furnish surface control (manual and automatic) and containment of well fluids and provide. Documents Similar To API – RP 14C Analysis, Design, Installation & Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms 7th Ed.
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They include end devices and auxiliary devices, which are important not only api rp 14c the system itself but also to the safety of the facility. The SSS incorporates various sensing devices. RP 14C  provides an analysis technique to identify potential abnormal conditions and wpi them from occurring. For example, in a component with a normal operating range of to psig, pressure greater than psig or less than psig are abnormal conditions. If the operator fails to monitor the liquid level properly api rp 14c the bypass valve is open, the liquid level in the component could get too high or too low.
The ESS is a major part of those backup efforts.
API defines undesirable events with catastrophic threats in mind. Refer to RP 14Cparagraph 4. For example, if a particular shut-down valve SDV keeps closing and nothing api rp 14c out of range when investigated, the SAFE chart could be consulted to determine which specific devices cause the SDV to close.
Within each process component, each variable has a normal operating range rrp of having a single normal value.
A safety analysis ties these two things together and is a tool for ensuring that a facility is protected fully. Whenever a process variable exceeds its normal range, it is said to be in an abnormal condition. Neither SATs nor SACs indicate what the devices do or how the devices on one api rp 14c relate to the devices on another component.
Potential threats to safety are identified through proven hazards-analysis techniques that have been adapted to hydrocarbon-production processes. When the four main process variables are kept within their normal ranges, process flow is occurring. At each stage, action can api rp 14c taken to keep the main process variables from resulting in worst-case consequences.
Identifying all the components that handle hydrocarbons in a production facility would be overwhelming. SAFE charts are used to evaluate the function of each safety device and to document precisely what each safety device does.
Recommended methods for safety analysis –
Chokes and controllers keep the variables within their normal ranges. Process 41c allow movement of the fluids through the process components while simultaneously achieving the degree of separation required for sales or water disposal. Some devices both sense and respond as an end device check api rp 14c, relief valves, etc.
Whenever hydrocarbons are present in a process component, each of the four main process variables take on some value. For example, if a PSV has been installed on an upstream flowline segment and if that upstream PSV provides an adequate degree ap protection for the downstream flowline segment and its equipment, then a second PSV located on the downstream flowline segment is redundant.
When chokes and controllers that normally keep the process variables in their normal ranges api rp 14c to function properly, the process api rp 14c being controlled can be outside its normal operating limits.
Information about the detectable abnormal condition provides a tool for better monitoring and provides information about which types of safety devices can be used to warn of api rp 14c impending undesirable event.
Before installing a specific safety device, a standard way of referring to it is needed.
The eight undesirable events identified by RP 14C  are overpressure, api rp 14c, liquid overflow, gas blowby, underpressure, excess temperature fire and exhaust-heated componentsdirect ignition source, and excess combustible vapors in the firing chamber fired components. The time and expense of purchasing, installing, and maintaining redundant devices would be significant and unnecessary.
The actual causes of abnormal conditions are varied and numerous. Each process component is api rp 14c for “worst case” input and output conditions. The seven subsystems that make up the ESS are an emergency-shutdown ESD system, a fire-detection system, a combustible-gas detection system, adequate ventilation, a liquid containment system, sumps, and subsurface safety valves.
Recommended methods for safety analysis
Examples of equipment failure or malfunction are chokes api rp 14c become enlarged through contact with excessive sand in the flow stream, dump valves that hang open or stay closed, and regulators or controllers that change adjustment because of vibration. A graphic symbol represents each safety device. Each of the eight undesirable events was examined further to api rp 14c the most common causes of the undesirable event, the effects of the undesirable event, detectable abnormal conditions that usually precede the undesirable event, the most effective primary and secondary protective devices that could prevent the undesirable event, and the optimal location for the placement of the required safety device.
It is important api rp 14c realize that when a device can be eliminated, the device is eliminated and not the required level of protection. Process flow is maintained by. Worst of all is api rp 14c fire caused by or fed by hydrocarbon releases. As long as flow is occurring, the liquid level within a process component will be changing.
Abnormal operating conditions could result in injury to personnel, pollution, and loss of assets. One of the cornerstones of facility protection lies in protecting each component against certain undesirable events that are closely related to the four main process variables. For example, if the pressure within a component were to become too high, a component could rupture; a pressure too low within a component could indicate a leak. SATs examine each process component as if it was standing alone.
An explosion or fire can cause extensive damage to equipment and personnel, which can result in extensive injury, pollution, and facility damage.
Onshore facilities have been completely leveled to the ground because of released hydrocarbons, as occurred in the Phillips incident in Pasadena, Texas, in SATs consider each undesirable event that could possibly affect the component and then, for each undesirable event, lists associated causes, detectable abnormal conditions, and api rp 14c locations for installing the protection devices.
Relief valves and relief systems. Instead of listing components by their common name, RP 14C  lists components by their functions, thus decreasing the api rp 14c of names from hundreds to only ten.
When an abnormal condition is detected, the sensing device sends a signal to an end device. Safety devices and safety systems are added to prevent undesirable events and they provide the last chance api rp 14c prevent worst-case consequences from occurring. A SAT-required safety device also no longer may be required if api rp 14c same degree of protection is provided by another device located elsewhere.